"Yet through preliminary but reliable data, we’re discovering what is working — peer support that engages clients regularly and over the long term has a positive effect. Our goal is to shift from substance-focused measures to those that evaluate overall health and wellness, not just symptoms." 

Every theory we have about what causes addiction is imperfect.

Several addiction theories have significant evidence supporting them — but, as with the disease model, none of them can be universally applied to every addict. That doesn’t necessarily undermine their validity, though. Addiction is perhaps best understood as many different pieces of a puzzle: The nature of those pieces will differ from person to person, and the picture they form will be as unique as the individual herself.