Every theory we have about what causes addiction is imperfect.

Several addiction theories have significant evidence supporting them — but, as with the disease model, none of them can be universally applied to every addict. That doesn’t necessarily undermine their validity, though. Addiction is perhaps best understood as many different pieces of a puzzle: The nature of those pieces will differ from person to person, and the picture they form will be as unique as the individual herself.

Native Americans make up less than 9 percent of South Dakota’s population, but represent a third of its prison population.

History and historical trauma is a thick thread in the tangled web of explanations for that longstanding statistic, and Theresa Henry believes addressing those issues is key to improving the outcomes for her people.